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Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three 2-drug combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal: artesunate-amodiaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and artemether-lumefantrine.

Medicine et Sante Tropicales, 2015; xx: xx
Authors:
Sow D, Ndiaye JL, Sylla K, Ba MS, Tine RC, Faye B, Pene M, Ndiaye M, Seck A, Lo AC, Abiola A, Dieng Y, Gaye O.
Doi: 10.1684/mst.2015.0524  PMID: 26644184

Since 2006, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) have been used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal, as recommended by WHO. Recently, decreased parasite clearance with artemisinin derivatives has been reported in Cambodia and Thailand. The effectiveness of artemisinin derivatives in Africa must be monitored. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of three ACT widely used in Senegal. From October 2010 to February 2011, a descriptive and analytical sequential study was conducted in adults and children to evaluate these three combinations: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ). The study took place at the health posts of Deggo and Pikine and the health center of Guédiawaye, in the suburbs of Dakar. The primary endpoint was the PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) at day 28 (D28); the secondary endpoints included ACPR at D42, clearance times for parasites, fever, and gametocytes, and the incidence of adverse events. The study included 393 patients: 139 in the AL group, 130 in the ASAQ group, and 124 in the DHAPQ group. In the intent-to-treat population, PCR-corrected ACPR at day 28 was 92.8% in the AL, 89.2% in the ASAQ, and 91.1% in the DHAPQ (p = 0.58) groups, and in the per-protocol population, 98.4%, 98.3%, and 100% respectively (p = 0.39). At D42, ACPR was 99.2% in the AL, and 99.1% in each of the ASAQ and DHAPQ arms (p = 1). No early therapeutic failure (ETF) was observed. The combinations were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported during the follow-up period. These combinations are still effective and well-tolerated. Continued monitoring is nonetheless essential to detect early artemisinin resistance in Africa.